Inside the Swiss Parliament: Shaping Legislation and Ensuring Democratic Decision-Making

Inside the Swiss Parliament: Shaping Legislation and Ensuring Democratic Decision-Making

The Swiss Parliament, which speaks for and represents the interests of the Swiss people, is a key component of the Swiss political system. The Swiss Parliament, made up of the National Council and the Council of States, has a significant impact on how laws are drafted and how democratic decision-making is ensured.

The National Council, also referred to as the Lower House, is the bigger of the two chambers and is made up of 200 members chosen through proportional representation. Its main job is to decide on national-level policies and laws while representing the Swiss people. The Swiss people use a direct voting system to elect members of the National Council to four-year terms.

Initiating legislation, approving the federal budget, and monitoring the activities of the Swiss Federal Council are all responsibilities of the National Council.


The Council of States, also known as the Upper House, is the smaller chamber with 46 members. Each canton is represented by two councilors, with the exception of the six halfcantons, which each have one councilor.

Assuring the cantons' participation in the legislative process, the Council of States represents their interests.

Depending on the specific laws of each canton, councilors in the Council of States are chosen either directly or by the cantonal parliaments. The National Council submits bills, which the Council of States reviews and amends.


The Swiss Parliament engages in a variety of legislative activities, including the introduction, debate, and adoption of bills. Both the Federal Council and the National Council's members may propose new legislation.

The legislative process goes through several stages, including parliamentary debates, public hearings, and committee reviews.


An agreement must be reached by the National Council and the Council of States for a bill to become law. This focus on reaching consensus is a reflection of Switzerland's dedication to a consensual political culture.


Several committees with expertise in various policy areas make up the Swiss Parliament. Inquiries, expert opinions, and the evaluation of proposed legislation are all important tasks performed by these committees. Additionally, by advocating for particular issues and fostering communication among parliamentarians, parliamentary groups—formed by members with shared affiliations or interests—contribute to the legislative process.


The Swiss Parliament provides a forum for various viewpoints, encourages political discussion, and ensures that both the Swiss people and the cantons are represented. By allowing citizens to actively participate in the decision-making process, it embodies the principles of direct democracy and consensus-building. The foundation of Switzerland's democratic government is the legislative work done by the Swiss Parliament, which fosters accountability, transparency, and the defense of citizens' rights and interests.


It is significant to note that the Swiss Parliament functions within the confines of the Swiss federal structure, respecting the independence of the cantons while ensuring effective national governance. The Swiss political system's stability and efficiency are largely due to the balance between national-level decision-making and regional representation. 

Author: Pooyan Ghamari, Swiss Economist & Visionary 

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